By Richard H. Groshong
Geological buildings are 3 dimensional, but are usually represented via, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, referred to as 2½-D, offer a better method of 3 dimensionality. machine expertise now allows geological interpretations to be built from the start in a completely 3 dim- sional surroundings. totally 3D geological types permit much better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more straightforward to proportion with different geologists and with most of the people. This ebook offers an summary of thoughts for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and 3D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the keep an eye on issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that constructions are three-d good our bodies and that facts from through the constitution, no matter if in 2-D or 3-D layout, could be built-in into an internally constant 3-D interpretation. it really is assumed that almost all clients of this publication will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the ebook presents quantitative structural tools and methods which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and 3-dimensional c- puter-graphics courses. The publication is additionally meant to supply the heritage for knowing what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does immediately. such a lot concepts are offered in either a conventional layout acceptable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative layout to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Additional info for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
The overlay is rotated into measurement position for the 080° azimuth (Fig. 15b) to find the apparent dip of 15°. Apparent dip problems can be worked backwards to find the true dip from two apparent dips. Plot the points representing the apparent dips, then rotate the overlay until both points fall on the same great circle. This great circle is the true dip plane. 2 Natural Variation of Dip and Measurement Error The effect of measurement error or of the natural irregularity of the measured surface on the determination of the attitude of a plane is readily visualized on a stereogram.
Reflections from steeply dipping units may return Fig. 46. Time-migrated seismic profile from southern Appalachian fold-thrust belt (Maher 2002), displayed with approximately no vertical exaggeration. The vertical scale is two-way travel time in seconds. a Uninterpreted. 7 · Sources of Structural Data and Related Uncertainties Fig. 47. Seismic model of a faulted fold. a Geometry of the model, no vertical exaggeration. b Model time section based on normal velocity variations with lithology and depth.
Two-dimensional time migration is a standard processing procedure that corrects for the apparent dip of reflectors in the plane of the seismic line, but does not correct for the shift of the reflector positions in the true dip direction. Two-dimensional depth migration may give the correct depth to the reflecting point, but still does not correct for the out-of-plane position shift. For example (Fig. 48b), four degrees of oblique dip leads to a 400- to 600-ft shift in the true position of the reflection points on a seismic section at depths of 10 500–10 800 ft.