Download A Dictionary of Science (5th Edition) by John Daintith PDF

By John Daintith

This best-selling dictionary comprises over 9,000 entries on all facets of technological know-how and gives complete insurance of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Appendices conceal the periodic desk, geological time scale, and animal and plant type. New gains comprise digital thumb tags for simple reference, multiplied parts together with astronomy and earth technology and extra beneficial properties on key themes reminiscent of the sunlight method and Genetically transformed Organisms. additionally featured are brief biographies of major scientists and chronologies of particular topics, together with plastics, electronics and cellphone biology. either concise and wide-ranging, this dictionary is a perfect convenient reference paintings and nice creation for college students and non-scientists alike.

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Allopolyploids are of great importance to plant breeders as advantages possessed by different species can be combined. The species of wheat, Triticum aestivum, used to make bread is an allohexaploid (6n), possessing 42 chromosomes, which is six times the original haploid number (n) of 7. Compare autopolyploid. all-or-none response A type of response that may be either complete and of full intensity or totally absent, depending on the strength of the stimulus; there is no partial response. For example, a nerve cell is either stimulated to transmit a complete nervous impulse or else it remains in its resting state; a stinging *thread cell of a cnidarian is either completely discharged or it is not.

Quantitative analysis involves anastigmatic lens measuring the proportions of known components in a mixture. Chemical techniques for this fall into two main classes: *volumetric analysis and *gravimetric analysis. In addition, there are numerous physical methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, including spectroscopic techniques, mass spectrometry, polarography, chromatography, activation analysis, etc. analytical geometry (coordinate geometry) A form of geometry in which points are located in a two-dimensional, threedimensional, or higher-dimensional space by means of a system of coordinates.

Compare apomixis. amphioxus Another name for the lancelet: see chordata. amphiprotic See amphoteric; solvent. ampholyte A substance that can act as either an acid, in the presence of a strong base, or a base, when in the presence of a strong acid. ampholyte ion See zwitterion. amphoteric Describing a compound that can act as both an acid and a base (in the traditional sense of the term). For instance, aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric: as a base Al(OH)3 it reacts with acids to form aluminium salts; as an acid H3AlO3 it reacts with alkalis to give *aluminates.

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