By Ofelia Zepeda
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Additional resources for A Papago Grammar
O'ohana an ma:k g Husi. I am/was giving the book to Joe. ) 34. a. Huan 'o ha'icu 'a:gid g Mali:ya. b. Huan 'o g Mali:ya ha'icu a:gid. c. Ha'icu 'o 'a:gid g Mali:ya g Huan. John is/was telling something to Mary. ) NOTE: The word "for" (wehejed) is expressed in these sentences, but the word "to" is simply implied or understood in Papago. If the indirect object is a pronoun, it is attached as a prefix either to wehejed, if it is present, or to the verb. The pronouns, which are the same as the special prefix forms for the direct object pronouns, are listed below: 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular Plural n- (to, for) me m- (to, for) you — (no prefix) t- (to, for) us 'em- (to, for) you ha- (to, for) them 38 LESSON 2 The following are examples of sentences with indirect object pronouns: 35.
John is/was walking to Tucson. , John is walking to Tucson in a direction away from the speaker. In (B) 'ab indicates movement toward the speaker. e. John is walking to Tucson (from another point) in a direction parallel to where the speaker is. 'Am always indicates an orientation away from the speaker; 'ab always indicates an orientation toward the speaker; and 'an always indicates an orientation next to the speaker. However, as shown in the examples below (D-F), these words may indicate location, rather than actual movement Example D.
D. For native speakers only. Make up at least five sentences with natural word orders and natural conjunction forms. In the sentences that you make up, do you find any new elements that we have not discussed yet? How would you try to explain these new elements to someone who is not a native speaker of Papago? LESSON 1 Direct and Indirect Objects in Transitive Sentences VOCABULARY NOUNS Singular Plural ban coyote cu:wi jackrabbit daikud chair ha'icu something, thing ki: house, home ma:gina car, machine mi:sa table nalaş orange to:bi rabbit, cottontail wakial cowboy ba:ban coyotes cu:wi jackrabbits dadaikud chairs ha'icu things ki:k, ki:ki houses mamgina cars, machines mimsa tables nalaş oranges totobî rabbits, cottontails wapkial cowboys VERBS a:gid saying, telling ceggia fighting cendad kissing cecposid branding gagtwid shooting huhu'id chasing ka: hearing kegcid cleaning mamk giving neid seeing iiu:kud taking care of sa:mud herding, shooing away wapkon washing a:gid saying, telling ceggia fighting cendad kissing ceposid branding gatwid shooting huhu'id chasing ka: hearing kegcid cleaning ma:k giving iieid seeing nu:kud taking care of sa:mud herding, shooing away wakon washing OTHER EXPRESSIONS we:hejed for 30 DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS 31 DIRECT OBJECTS IN SIMPLE TRANSITIVE SENTENCES The following are examples of simple transitive sentences: 1.