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By Nina Gunde-Cimerman (Editor), Aharon Oren (Editor), Ana Plemenitas (Editor)

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Additional resources for Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya (Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology) (Cellular ... Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology)

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Numbers of up to 40,000 Dunaliella cells ml-1 were reported in surface water in 1964 (sampling date not specified) – the highest numbers recorded anytime in the Dead Sea. 9x106 cells ml-1 (Fig. 1B). At 100 m depth, numbers were about an order of magnitude lower (Kaplan and Friedmann, 1970). Analysis of the wealth of data on algal and prokaryote community densities from 1980 onwards, including vertical profiles of the distribution of the cells, has enabled a good understanding of the community dynamics of the biota in the lake, and the behavior of the communities can now be understood on the basis of the changes in the physical structure of the water column described above.

89-103. A. and Stiller, M. (1991) The post-1979 thermohaline structure of the Dead Sea and the role of double-diffusivity. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 342-354. , Shasha, S. R. (1987) Changes in the thermo-haline structure of the Dead Sea. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 84, 109-121. Beyth, M. (1980) Recent evolution and present stage of Dead Sea brines, In: A. ), Hypersaline Brines and Evaporitic Environments. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 155-165. , Anati, D. and Katz, A. (1993) Effects of the December 1991 – May 1992 floods on the Dead Sea vertical structure.

To what extent those fungi isolated from the Dead Sea are present as vegetative hyphae and may contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the lake remains to be determined. , 1984, 1987), and these may play an important role in anaerobic degradation processes in the sediments. We know little about the factors responsible for the observed declines in the numbers of prokaryotes in the Dead Sea. Ciliate and amoeboid protozoa have been cultivated from Dead Sea water samples in the 1940s (Volcani, 1944), but their presence could not be ascertained in the past decades.

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