By Rene Hubner
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Extra resources for Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects
Ii) Particular atomic species leave the barrier region and diffuse into copper resulting in a lower crystallization temperature caused by slight changes of the Ta-Si-N composition. In this regard, the above-discussed Ta diffusion might contribute to an accelerated Thermal Stability of Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers … 53 crystallization. (iii) Due to the presence of the Cu/barrier interface, heterogeneous nucleation is very likely. In this case, the nucleation energy is significantly reduced compared to homogeneous nucleation .
Besides measurements at samples with alternate film stacks, experiments employing trace-analytical techniques are introduced. Based on the experimental results, the thermal stabilities and the failure mechanisms of the various Ta-based diffusion barriers are comparatively discussed. This chapter closes with concluding remarks. 1. ) equipped with loadlock, dealer, ICP (inductively coupled plasma) soft-etch chamber, Cu-PVD module, and Ta/Ta5Si3-PVD module, Ta-based diffusion barriers and Cu metallization layers were deposited onto blanket and thermally oxidized (100) Si wafers.
Figure 15 (a) shows XRR curves for the Cu/Ta73Si27/SiO2/Si sample recorded after heat treatment at T = 600 °C. Significant changes of the barrier structure already occur during annealing for t = 1 h. In particular, an amplitude decrease of the barrier oscillations points to an increase of the Cu/barrier interface roughness. Additionally, the barrier layer thickness is reduced. In combination with the GDOES results (Table 5), both changes are primarily caused by disadvantageous Ta diffusion from the Ta-Si barrier along Cu grain boundaries to the sample surface.