Download An Introduction to Surfactants by Tharwat F. Tadros PDF

By Tharwat F. Tadros

Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important function in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate frequent software in own care, cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and the meals undefined. Their type, actual houses, part habit, their results and functions are coated during this booklet.

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It is generally accepted that the PPO chain is not sufficiently hydrophobic to provide a strong “anchor” to a hydrophobic surface or to an oil droplet. Indeed, the reason for the surface activity of the PEO–PPO–PEO triblock copolymers at the o/w interface may stem from a process of “rejection” anchoring of the PPO chain since it is not soluble both in oil and water. Several other di- and triblock copolymers have been synthesized, although these are of limited commercial availability. Typical examples are diblocks of polystyrene-block-polyvinyl alcohol, triblocks of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block poly(ethylene oxide)-block poly(methyl methacrylate), diblocks of polystyrene block-polyethylene oxide and triblocks of polyethylene oxide-block polystyrene-polyethylene oxide [25].

1 Thermodynamics of micellization | 37 the counterions which exchange rapidly with lifetimes in the range 10−9 –10−8 s. Furthermore, the counterions appear to be laterally mobile and not to be associated with (single) specific groups on the micelle surfaces. 2 Equilibrium aspects: Thermodynamics of micellization Various approaches have been employed in tackling the problem of micelle formation. The simplest approach treats micelles as a single phase, and this is referred to as the phase separation model.

The alcohols are less polar than water and are distributed between the bulk solution and the micelles. The more preference they have for the micelles, the more they stabilize them. 32 | 3 Aggregation of surfactants, self-assembly structures, liquid crystalline phases A longer alkyl chain leads to a less favorable location in water and more favorable location in the micelles The presence of micelles can account for many of the unusual properties of solutions of surface active agents. For example, it can account for the near constant surface tension value, above the cmc (see Fig.

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