By L. Nordenfelt
Scientists inside of human and animal technological know-how have broadly mentioned the philosophy of drugs, yet by no means have each side communicated on their suggestions of future health, caliber of lifestyles and welfare, with one another. This e-book goals to assist make clear the tricky yet primary notions of healthiness and welfare by means of evaluating the human and animal versions of those innovations. cut up into 3 components this ebook starts off via featuring a history of a few of the most important theories of human health and wellbeing and welfare, through a close dialogue of theories on animal welfare and health and wellbeing. whereas the ultimate a part of the booklet assessments a finished conceptual framework of a holistic style, which makes a speciality of the individual's skill to accomplish its important pursuits.
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Extra resources for Animal and Human Health and Welfare: A Comparative Philosophical Analysis (Cabi Publishing)
I will now, however, focus on Bentham’s views on the nature of pleasure or happiness and of the various kinds of pleasure or happiness that he acknowledges. I will also brieﬂy comment on his ideas on measuring pleasure or happiness. These are in a way the classic forerunners of the measurements of quality of life today. First some remarks about terminology. Bentham does not make a clear distinction between pleasure and happiness. On many occasions he talks about ‘pleasure or happiness’ as if the two terms were almost synonymous.
The problem with this argument is that we can observe just as many possible differences on the higher level, viz. regarding the distribution of oxygen. The environment does not just require different pulses but also different levels of oxygen for different purposes and different contexts. Hence the blood distribution also becomes disqualiﬁed as a ‘real’ function. We must look for the real function on an even higher level of the organization of the human being. But also on that level we can ﬁnd differences and no ‘real’ functions.
Jeremy Bentham and the Utilitarians The activity-oriented theory of the good life that was advocated by Aristotle has not much inﬂuenced the welfare philosophers of our time. I have in mind primarily the utilitarians who have been the leading ﬁgures in the Anglo-Saxon countries and Scandinavia. The modern forefather of utilitarianism is Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832). He presented his main ideas on moral and legal matters in the great work An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation from 1789 (a recent edition 1982).