By Viacheslav Shpakovsky, David Nicolle, Gerry Embleton
Dealing with off opposed to Byzantines, Arabs, Vikings, Turks, Mongols, and Russians, this steppe tradition ruled Black Sea and Caucasus alternate in the course of Medieval times.
The Bulgars have been a Turkic those that verified a country north of the Black Sea, and who confirmed similarities with the Alans and Sarmatians. within the overdue 500s and early 600s advert their country fragmented stressed from the Khazars; one team moved south into what grew to become Bulgaria, however the relaxation moved north through the seventh and eighth centuries to the basin of the Volga river. There they remained below Khazar domination till the Khazar Khanate used to be defeated by way of Kievan (Scandinavian) Russia in 965. Thereafter the Volga Bulgars - controlling an in depth sector surrounding a big hub of overseas exchange - turned richer and extra influential; they embraced Islam, turning into the main northerly of medieval peoples to take action. Given their primary place on exchange routes, their armies have been famous for the splendour in their armour and guns, which drew upon either Western and jap assets and impacts (as, ultimately, did their struggling with tactics).
In the 1220s they controlled to maul Genghis Khan's Mongols, who lower back to devastate their cities in revenge. via the 1350s that they had recovered a lot in their wealth, yet they have been stuck within the heart among the Tatar Golden Horde and the Christian Russian principalities. They have been ravaged through those armies in activate numerous events among 1360 and 1431. a brand new urban then rose from the ashes - Kazan, initially referred to as New Bulgar - and the successor Islamic Khanate of Kazan resisted the Russians until eventually falling to Ivan the bad in 1552. The costumes, armament, armour and scuffling with tools of the Volga Bulgars in this momentous interval are explored during this absolutely illustrated examine.
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Extra info for Armies of the Volga Bulgars & Khanate of Kazan: 9th-16th Centuries
De Goeje), Kitab al-A‘lak al-Nafisa (Book of Precious Records) (Leiden, 1892) Istakhri, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Farisi al- (ed. W. Ouseley), The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the Tenth Century (London, 1800). NB: this work was wrongly attributed to Ibn Hawqal. , Zashchitniki ‘Stenui Iskandera’ - Vooruzhenue, voennoe iskussmvo i voennaya ismoruya Volgasskoi Bulgarii X-XIII vv (Defenders of ‘Alexander’s Wall’. L. , Vooryzhenie i Voennoe Delo Naselenia Volzhskoy Bulgarii Xnachala XIII vv.
In some examples the surface was colourfully painted. The Bulgars used the originally Turkish name of kalkan for such shields. Some manuscript illustrations in the Russian Radzivilovskaya Chronicle are believed to show Volga Bulgar foot-soldiers using both these round shields and the kite-shaped shields also carried by Russian warriors. An overview of the general development of Volga Bulgar military equipment from the late 12th or early 13th century onwards suggests much the same picture as could be seen throughout Europe – one of increasing weight and protective capabilities.
Izmailov) 35 have been a danger of the visor flipping up and exposing the wearer’s face in battle. On the other hand, the same single-hinged attachment at the forehead was used in many visored bascinets in 14th- and early 15th-century Europe, especially in Germany, Central Europe and Italy. A very similar mask, but with a closed mouth, was found during excavations at Serensk in the Kaluga region of western Russia. This has been dated by A. Kirpichnikov to the first half of the 13th century. Much later examples continued to be used in parts of the Caucasus until the early 19th century.