By Antoine S. Lussier, Ian L. Getty
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Additional info for As Long As the Sun Shines and Water Flows: A Reader in Canadian Native Studies
Cultural assimilation was part of the concept of imperialism which dominated the history of the nineteenth century, particularly in Great Britain and France. The theory of empire, cultural and political, was one in which every white man believed, in those countries at least; empire as an instrument for the betterment of mankind; empire as an instrument through which the more fortunate white man would assume the burden imposed on him by God; empire as an instrument not of oppression but of freedom, freedom from ignorance.
A second group of treaties — 8, 9, 10, and 11 — were concluded between 1899 and 1921. 31 To date, treaty negotiations have not been carried out with the Indians and Inuit of the Yukon, the District of Franklin, or the Arctic Islands. All these treaties followed much the same pattern. 32 IV What, basically, was the Canadian government's motive in entering into these Indian treaties? Was it because the government formally recognized that the Indians were, in fact, the aboriginal owners of the land with which the negotiations were concerned?
These land surrenders were not properly treaties. 10s. for each man, woman, and child. Some years later (1829) the annuities were applied towards the cost of building houses and purchasing tools and farm stock. The government bureaucracy was beginning to take over. This was then followed by the establishment of the "band fund" system, a financial device with which most present day Indians are familiar. 25 The scheme collapsed largely because the Indians refused to move. They would not leave the regions that were familiar to them.