By North G.R., Erukhimova T.L.
This textbook offers a uniquely built-in process in linking either physics and chemistry to the learn of atmospheric thermodynamics. The e-book explains the classical legislation of thermodynamics, specializes in a variety of fluid platforms, and, spotting the expanding significance of chemistry within the meteorological and weather sciences, devotes a bankruptcy to chemical thermodynamics inclusive of an outline of photochemistry. even supposing scholars are anticipated to have a few history wisdom of calculus, common chemistry and classical physics, the ebook presents set-aside refresher bins as worthy reminders. It comprises over a hundred diagrams and graphs to complement the discussions, and an analogous variety of labored examples and workouts, with options integrated on the finish of the publication. it truly is excellent for a single-semester complex path on atmospheric thermodynamics, and may arrange scholars for higher-level synoptic and dynamics classes.
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Additional resources for Atmospheric thermodynamics
The area under the curve is the work performed by the system on the environment. done by the parcel on its surroundings during the cyclic process. When the parcel’s volume decreases, it does negative work. 1 Consider a system composed of 2 kg of dry air at 0 ◦ C. Let the system expand isobarically from its initial volume of 1 m3 to 3 m3 . How much work is done by the system? 2) VA where VA = 1 m3 and VB = 3 m3 , pA = ρRd TA . 57×105 Pa. 13× 105 J = 313 kJ (kilojoules). 2 How much does the temperature change during the above process?
13 Calculate the densities of pure dry air and pure water vapor at STP. 803 kg m−3 . 43) Water vapor at the same temperature and pressure is less dense than dry air. 2 kg of dry air at STP. How many moles of O2 , N2 , and Ar are there? 5 Dalton’s Law 39 Answer: 1200 g = νd Md . 4 mol of dry air. 0093νd . 41 mol. 15 How high would a molecule with upward directed speed 485 m s−1 go before turning back in the Earth’s gravity ﬁeld? 44) or h = v02 /(2g) ≈ 12000 m = 12 km. This is just larger than the scale height of the atmosphere.
6. The value of the distribution is some 10−313 s m−1 . 7×109 years) is exceedingly small. The median of the distribution moves to higher speeds if the temperature is raised or if the mass of the molecules is lowered. 7 shows the case of hydrogen atoms (M = 1) at 350 K, a value characteristic of altitudes ∼ 120 km. 7 Graph of the distribution of molecular speeds 4πv 2 P(v) for atomic hydrogen (M = 1) at a temperature of 350 K, a value for the upper atmosphere (∼ 120 km). The speed v is expressed in units of m s−1 .