By Hermann Ehrlich
This is the second one monograph through the writer on organic fabrics of marine beginning. The preliminary publication is devoted to the organic fabrics of marine invertebrates. This paintings is a resource of contemporary wisdom on biomineralization, biomimetics and fabrics technological know-how with admire to marine vertebrates. For the 1st time in medical literature the writer supplies the main coherent research of the character, starting place and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers remoted from and saw within the wide number of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and inside their specified hierarchically prepared structural formations. there's a wealth of latest and newly synthesized details, together with dozens of formerly unpublished photos of distinct marine creatures together with extinct, extant and residing taxa and their biocomposite-based buildings from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph reports the main appropriate advances within the marine organic fabrics study box, mentioning numerous ways being brought and explored by means of unique smooth laboratories.
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Additional resources for Biological Materials of Marine Origin: Vertebrates
The belly is tapered like the keel of a boat for stability in the water, and this snake lacks the flattened belly scales that give land snakes traction on the ground. The sea snake’s scales are knob-like and fit against one another like bricks, rather than overlapping as in land snakes. 2014). Sea snakes possess corresponding physiological adaptations because they may spend up to 90 % of their time underwater. These animals have no gill; however it is known that their skin can act in the same manner.
The eyes of birds are small and located on either side of their head. They play crucial role in seabird life because eyes protect them from the rather bright light at sea surface and give them a wide field of view. So called nictitating membrane of diving seabirds is responsible to close the eye when the bird is underwater, but does not play a refractive role. Some species possess a clear lens in the centre of this membrane that enhances their vision. The cornea of the seabird eye has an important refractive role in air but does not usually work underwater because its refractive index is similar to that of water.
Crocodilians’ long flattened tails possess morphological features that enable them to swim efficiently through water. These reptiles breathe through nostrils located at the top of their head. The presence of the lingual salt glands which help to secrete excess of salt ions is known in crocodiles (Grigg et al. 1980; Taplin and Grigg 1981; Taplin 1984, 1985; Franklin and Grigg 1993). These glands in crocodilians are stimulated by a salt load, and their morphology is conserved (Kirschner 1980; Mazzotti and Dunson 1984).