Download Biological Sciences: Notable Research and Discoveries by Kyle Kirkland PDF

By Kyle Kirkland

Organic Sciences makes a speciality of the scientists who discover the frontiers of this advanced subject and their unforeseen effects. This publication examines the journals and reviews during this box, providing scholars perception into the equipment and functions of biology. Chapters comprise: -Brain Imaging: trying to find websites of notion and recognition -The Human Genome in health and wellbeing and sickness -Protein constitution and serve as -Biodiversity The Complexity of lifestyles -The Biology and Evolution of Viruses -Regeneration therapeutic by way of Regrowing.

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For example, the words of a language belong to different categories and serve different roles, such as nouns to specify objects and verbs to specify action. Researchers can use imaging to determine if any differences exist in where these categories are processed in the brain. Harvard University researchers Kevin A. Shapiro, Lauren R. Moo, and Alfonso Caramazza took fMRI images of the brains of people who produced either verbs or nouns in short phrases. As reported in “Cortical Signatures of Noun and Verb Production,” published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2006, these researchers discovered that two areas of the brain were activated more strongly during verb production—a portion of the left frontal cortex and a region in the left parietal lobe.

Through a combination of different types of experiment—lesion studies, single neuron recording in cats and monkeys, EEG, and imaging—scientists have traced the path of visual signals as they travel through the brain. The retina and subsequent regions on the pathway are structurally organized to maintain position information, so that the direction and location of an object can be determined. In the cortex, where the most advanced processing occurs, experimenters have found more than 30 distinct regions in monkeys that act on some part of these signals.

Indd 29 12/8/09 12:48:53 PM 30 Biological Sciences different aspects of the same visual stimulus, and synchronization could possibly be the solution to the mystery of how different parts of an object become linked into a single perception. Synchronization might prove to be important in perception, but it cannot last long or involve many neurons, for when too many neurons are active at the same time, a seizure results. Since the oscillations that may be involved in perception and information processing are brief and have small amplitudes, they are not easy to study even with an imaging technique such as MEG, which has excellent time and spatial resolution.

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