Download Biophysics by Eberhard Schnepf (auth.), Professor Dr. Walter Hoppe, PDF

By Eberhard Schnepf (auth.), Professor Dr. Walter Hoppe, Professor Dr. Wolfgang Lohmann, Professor Dr. Hubert Markl, Professor Dr. Hubert Ziegler (eds.)

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Frequently, the spindle elongates during mitosis. In telophase the chromosomes become more elongated and decondense. The nucleolus reappears, the nuclear envelope is reconstituted by the fusion of ER cisternae. Usually, mitosis takes about 1/2 to 2 h, with prophase and telophase as the most extended parts; interphase lasts for about 15-30 h. The data depend highly on the organism, the cell type, and environmental influences. Occasionally, especially during differentiation of highly specialized plant cells, mitosis is incomplete.

In brown adipose tissue of hibernating animals), the electron transport chain runs without ATP formation; instead, heat is produced. In cells with high respiratory activity, e. , in muscle or in kidney, the mitochondria are especially rich in cristae. The matrix contains the soluble enzymes of the citrate cycle and of fatty acid degradation as well as DNA and ribosomes. The mitochondrial DNA (mitDNA) of higher animals is a ring of about 5 11m. In plants it can be longer. It is not associated with histones and does not hybridize with nuclear DNA.

10. 2 Chromosomes During nuclear division the chromosomes become distinct as individual bodies. They differ in size and in the position of the kinetochore (centromere) a constriction, in which the spindle fibers attach in mitosis (Sect. 1). Additional secondary constrictions likewise can be found; often they are associated with the nucleolar organizer (Sect. 3). In somatic cells of higher animals and plants there are two homologous chromosomes, one of them from the In metabolically active nuclei there are one to several nucleoli, dense inclusions of the karyoplasm with a relatively high RNA content.

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