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Com 40 Partial molar properties Chemical Thermodynamics we see that the chemical potential is equal to the partial molar Gibbs free energy. 2 Relationship between total properties and partial molar properties Any extensive property of a system can be written in terms of its partial molar quantities. Recall that an extensive property is a property that scales proportionally with the size of the system. If the system doubles in size, then value of the extensive property should double. If the size of the system increases by a factor t, then the value of the extensive property should increase by a factor t.

Com 37 The ideal solution model Chemical Thermodynamics The basic condition for equilibrium between phases is μvα (T, p, y2 , y3 , . . ) = μlα (T, p, x2 , x3 , . . 6) where μvα is the chemical potential of component α in the vapor phase, μlα is the chemical potential of component α in the liquid phase, yα is the mole fraction of component α in the vapor phase, and xα is the mole fraction of component α in the liquid phase. Since the liquid phase behaves as an ideal mixture, we have μlα (T, p, x2 , x3 , .

17) where we have used the fact that γ2 → 1 as x2 → 1. Given the γ1 (x2 ), Eq. 17) can be used to determine γ2 (x2 ). 5 Azeotropic systems One of the shortcomings of Raoult’s law is that it cannot describe the behavior of azeotropic systems. The modified Raoult’s law, however, can describe azeotropic systems as we will demonstrate below. 20) At this point, we can cancel the compositions from both sides of Eq. 22) Please click the advert Note that Eqs. 22) are only valid at the azeotropic composition.

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