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Extra resources for Collected Works of Lars Onsager: With Commentary
Gallezot et al. [ 1151 investigated the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde in the liquid phase at 60 "C under a hydrogen pressure of 40 bar. The first hydrogenation step can lead to either 3-phenylpropanal or cinnamyl alcohol (Fig. 6), depending on whether hydrogen adds to the carbon-carbon double bond or the carbonyl group. Ultimately, 3-phenylpropanol is formed. + and subsequent decomposition of the ammine complex under different, but well defined conditions. -%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, in the first sample, the noble metal was homogeneously distributed inside the zeolite with a particle diameter of 1 to 2 nm.
For their preparation, the transition metal ion is first exchanged into the zeolite whereupon the complex is synthesized by reaction with 1,2-dicyanobenzene at temperatures around 300 "C. Usually, part of the phthalocyanine complexes are formed at the external surface, but this part can be selectively removed by Soxhlet extraction. Iron phthalocyanine in NaY has also been synthesized from [HFe3(CO),,]- which was first oxidized and then reduced under controlled conditions whereupon 12-dicyanobenzene was admitted [ 1601.
34 Stereoselective catalysis Enantioselective catalysis in zeolites is often looked upon as one of the ultimate goals. It requires chiral centers next to the catalytically active sites. In principle, different methods can be used to induce chiral properties. According to Dessau , chiral hydrogenating catalysts result if a n acid zeolite loaded with a hydrogenation metal, e. , Pt/HZSM-5, is neutralized with an optically active amine, such as S-(-)- a-methylbenzylamine (Fig. 10). M. Dessau. US Patent 4 554 262, Mobil Oil Corp..