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By 张耒

张耒是北宋晚期的一位重要诗人,张耒青年时代游学陈州,以文章受知于学官苏辙,因而得从苏轼门下,苏轼称其文“汪洋淡泊,有一唱三叹之声”,在苏轼的挹提携下,张耒与黄庭坚、晁補之,泰颧一时并有文名,世称“苏门四学士”,本书是所传张耒各种本子的合集,极具研究收藏价值。

张耒(1054-1114),北宋诗人。字文潜,号柯山。祖籍亳州谯县(今安徽省亳县)人,生长于楚州淮阴(今属江苏省清江)。为“苏门四学士”之一。张耒自幼聪慧,13岁即能文,从学于苏轼,颇受苏轼的爱重。神宗·熙宁六年(1073年)中进士,历任临淮主簿、寿安尉、咸平县丞,著作郎、史馆检诗等职。哲宗·结圣初,以直龙阁知润州。徽宗·元祐初占试馆阁,授秘书省正字,官至起居舍人。绍圣中被指为元祐党人,谪监黄州酒税,徙复州,数遭贬谪。徽宗继位,始立黄州通判,知兖州,召为太常少卿,不久出知颍、汝二州。在颍州得到苏轼死讯,举哀行服。自苏轼、苏辙、黄庭坚、晁补之相继去世,张耒独存,士人均向他问学。张耒文风,源于三苏,主张文理并重,平易舒坦。对南宋诗人学习唐调,开了风气。风格与柳永、秦观相近,代表作有《少年游》、《风流子》等。《少年游》写闺情离思,那娇羞少女的情态跃然纸上,让人羡煞爱煞,那份温情美妙真是有点“浓得化不开”之酣意。其佳句“漱井消午醉,扫花坐晚凉”,“川坞半夜雨,卧冷五更秋”,“翠浪有声黄帽动,春风无力彩旗垂”等,很受人们称赏。创作以诗歌成就最高,集中有乐府诗、古律诗30余卷,近1700首,除个人抒情遣怀之作外,多以田野风光、稼穑艰难和民生疾苦居多,颇有白居易、张籍、王建之风,不尚雕琢。如《田家》、《海州道中》等。他的写景抒怀诗,真醇自然,清新圆润,而人寻味。如咏乡土风物和农夫忧乐,反映出卖苦力者艰辛的《劳歌》,描绘农人劳动“半归仓廪半输王”痛苦的《输麦行》,写迫于饥寒农民操戈为盗的《和晁应之悯农》等,在题材和思想的开拓上颇具新意。张耒诗风以平易、流丽、晓畅见长,很少硬语僻典,晁补之曾在《题文潜诗册后》赞称说:“君诗容易不著意,忽似春风开百花。”。苏轼则在《答张文潜书》中称其文甚似苏辙:“汪洋淡泊,有一唱三叹之声。”不过,张耒写诗,长于锻造佳句,短于谋篇布局,有时琢炼不够,部分作品不免流于草率粗疏。张耒写词甚少,《能改斋漫录》卷十七录其《少年游》、《秋蕊香》词,谓:“元祐诸公皆有乐府,唯张仅见此二词。”可知其词当时却不多见。今人辑得《柯山词》仅6首,其中《秋蕊香》、《风流子》写得深婉多情,风调略与秦观祠相近。张耒有《柯山集》50卷,《拾遗》12卷,《续拾遗》1卷,存武英殿聚珍藏版福建本、广雅书局本。《张右史文集》60卷,有《四部丛刊》影印旧钞本,《宛丘集》76卷,有《四库全书》本。见于《宛丘集》而不见于《柯山集》的诗文,已辑入《拾遗》中。
  这次整理的《张耒集》,是所传张耒各种本子的合集。此外,我们又从《竹坡诗话》、《诗林广记》、《全芳憊祖》等书中辑出诗十六首(句)、赞文一首,编为《佚文辑存》附后。有关张耒的传记资料及版本序跋等,亦一并附后憊考。底本原有的序跋、年谱等,也并入书末附录中。张耒另有《张太史明道杂志》一卷,属笔记体专著,这次整理未予收入。为了查检方便,书后附有篇目索引。

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Extra resources for Collection of ZhangLei (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:张耒集)

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MODEL: The Bird’s Nest (national stadium) PHOTOS: WEN Fang, The Golden Brick : “ What are you looking at ?  ”, 2006; CAO Fei, Housebreaker, 2006. 16 Present-day period: frenetic, multifaceted urbanism In Beijing in particular, major building projects are under way, designed by leading international architects. PHOTOS: the new opera house, the headquarters of Chinese TV. 17 MODEL: The Bird’s Nest (national stadium) 18 Emergence of modern architecture Portrait of LIANG Sicheng (1901-1972), pioneer of modern architecture.

Compare them with the Beijing pictograms. These pictograms are based on the figurines depicted on vases from Ancient Greece. d) Which object do you think inspired the pictograms for the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000? e) On this sheet, which three sports are represented in the pictograms for Beijing, Athens and Sydney? 44 Pupil worksheets (ages 8-12) The icons of the Games, between tradition and modernity Sheet 3 > The torch relay Before the Games, the Olympic flame is lit in Olympia in Greece. It is then carried by torchbearers throughout the world.

Give some examples. 53 Pupil worksheets (ages 8-12) > Sheet 7 West (Level 0): Environment & urbanism a) Beijing, a changing city! Who used to live in the Forbidden City? What shape were the houses in Beijing? Draw one. These days, famous architects are designing surprising new buildings. Draw the model of the Olympic stadium. What does it remind you of? What name would you give to the building that houses the swimming pool? b) Protecting nature Air and water are heavily polluted in China. What are the main causes of this pollution?

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