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By Bernard Lewis

Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd version presents the chemist, physicist, and engineer with the medical foundation for knowing combustion phenomena.

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Extra resources for Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases

Example text

With this background we are now ready to apply the applicable data to a best fit of the equations. The terms a, b, c, I, u} and s are sum­ marized as follows. They are functions of the absolute temperature, T, the pressure, p, in mm. Hg, mixture composition in terms of mole frac­ tion, /, and vessel diameter, d, in cm. The form of the temperature func­ tion follows the expression of the rate coefficients described in Chapter I. R is the gas constant in calories per degree. 0232 ( I ? 414/p, + A 1U d2 /H2 + g ΛΊ 8 8 / θ 2 + ,λΛ.

In the former, a mixture is prepared at pressures exceeding the second limit, and the pressure is gradually reduced until explosion occurs. In the latter method, the mixture is prepared at a temperature below the limit and the vessel is heated until explosion occurs. Figure 2a shows the influence of vessel diameter in KCl-coated spherical vessels. The tip is seen to be sharply displaced toward higher temperature with decreasing vessel size attesting to the increased rate of chain breaking. The second limit changes little in going from a 10-cm.

4. Self-inhibition of reaction rates near explosion limits. the second limit and the junction of the second and third limits where the water-vapor effect is strong, the rate is self-inhibited. This is illus­ trated in Fig. 4. It is possible to some extent, by rapid manipulation, to obtain a good value of the initial rate by extrapolation to zero time. At temperatures well below the junction and at pressures where fcu[H2]/i£i2 in equation (10) becomes very large compared to 1, the rate, being de­ pendent more on the numerator than on the denominator of the equation, 45 1.

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