By Steve Doty
This sensible table reference for power engineers, now absolutely up-to-date and increased with new fabric all through, is designed to function a finished source for appearing power audits in advertisement amenities. even supposing there aren't any "typical" advertisement constructions, the ebook starts off with the idea that after advertisement amenities are subdivided into different types in line with company variety, many beneficial styles may be pointed out which turn into ordinarily appropriate to the functionality of an efficient power audit. consequently, dialogue of techniques and guidance is equipped for quite a lot of company and construction forms, equivalent to colleges and schools, eating places and quickly meals, hospitals and scientific amenities, grocery shops, laboratories, accommodation, condominium structures, place of work structures, retail, public defense, info facilities, church buildings and non secular amenities, libraries, laundries, warehouses and extra. All focal parts of the construction strength audit and evaluate are coated, together with development envelope, lights, HVAC, controls, warmth restoration, thermal garage, electric platforms and utilities. the second one version offers new fabric on such issues as early alternative choice making, influence of hire preparations on strength undertaking curiosity, coordination of upstream/downstream set issues, semiconductor fab multi-stage HVAC air tempering, commissioning, overlapping heating and cooling and lots more and plenty extra.
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Extra info for Commercial Energy Auditing Referance Handbook
Reset boiler hot water temperature based on outside air temp. • Lower domestic hot water temperature to 120 deg F. • Turn off domestic hot water re-circulation pumps at night. ). Maintenance • Calibrate controls every two years.
This is understandable, however benchmarking in dollars introduces additional variables of the cost of energy—and this can vary substantially by area and over time. For this reason, benchmarks that are in terms of energy units instead of dollars introduce less uncertainty and are easier to work with. Just remember that, at the end of the day, it’s usually about money. Examples: Energy use per SF per year (kBtu/SF-yr) Energy use per part produced (kBtu/part) Energy use per ton of material processed (kBtu/ton) Energy use per month per hotel guest (kBtu/month-guest) Energy use per 100 meals served (kBtu/100 meals) Energy use per year per student (kBtu/student-yr) DIFFERENTIATING BY ENERGY SOURCE Benchmarking is possible for electric use vs.
Analyzing Energy Use Graphs 15 LOAD FACTOR The example graph shows the mirror image effect of poor load factor on electric cost. “Load Factor” is the ratio of average to maximum electric demand; overall electric cost will be inversely proportional to load factor with standard utility rates that favor steady electric usage. Figures 2-4a. Figures 2-4b. 16 Commercial Energy Auditing Reference Handbook The effect of “low load factor” on the electric bill can be easily explained—short periods of high power demand raise the monthly demand charge by the same amount whether used for an hour or all month.