By F.R. Walther
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Extra info for Communication and expression in hoofed mammals
For example, the recipient's responses to a threat display of a dominant sender may involve assuming a submissive posture (in which again different degrees of intensity are possible) without leaving the place, or withdrawing by walking (at any of a number of different speeds), or fleeing at a full gallop—to name the most common responses which seem to belong to the same major category (inferiority behavior in this ease). These two alternatives—taking the challenge or performing an inferiority behavior—certainly are opposites but both are adequate responses to an aggressive display.
Thus, it happens quite frequently that the sender does not bring his entire body but only his head into a—frontal, lateral, or reverse—orientation toward the addressee according to the pars pro toto principle. , Cherry 1957) wish to acknowledge for animals. 1a. (Walther 1978d. I hardly see how these changes of the sender's orientation can be explained by the tropism theory. Again, this "choice" is hard to explain by a tropism. On the other hand, one may still speak of a kind of addressing since the display is clearly released by the other's presence and/or behavior, the latter can definitely perceive it, and it is absolutely appropriate for delivering a definite message to him.
Thus, when talking here of principal points of communication, there is no need for an extensive consideration of the influence of circumstances beyond the mentioned aspects. In such cases, the single recipient has much greater latitude as to whether he relates the sender's signal to himself and reacts to it than in situations in which he is individually and "very personally" addressed. However, as compared to a facetoface situation, this communication is more anonymous, in that the recipient's reaction is not as directly under the sender's control.