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Find expressions for b0 and b1 . 16. 001 when a force is applied at constant volume, what is the fractional change of the diameter of the bar? 17. Find Young’s modulus for a rubber whose stress–strain curve obeys Eq. (54). 18. 0 km above sea level? Assume an altitude-independent atmospheric temperature of 25 C and an average molecular weight of the atmosphere of 29 g=mol. 19. 0 g=cm? 0 km for a temperature that drops linearly with elevation at a rate of 6:5 C=km. * Consider the following apparatus used to measure the molar volumes of coexisting liquid and gaseous phases: Two thick-walled glass tubes of known volumes are each filled with measured amounts of a substance.

A system has a particular state independent of the way in which it has arrived at that state. A system is characterized by measuring its properties. For systems at equilibrium, specification of a few properties will suffice to determine all other properties of the system and, thus, its state. Quantities that are determined by defining the equilibrium state are called state functions. After a short period of adjusting to their constraints, gases and liquids can usually be assumed to be at equilibrium for all physical changes2 (but not necessarily for chemical reactions).

Because we define our constraints in the surroundings, a constant-pressure process has constant Pext . If the system has a moveable boundary and the system is initially in mechanical equilibrium with the surroundings (Pi ¼ Pext;i ), then P will remain equal to Pext for the following two processes: 1. 2. The process has no tendency to change the pressure of the system. For example, it may be a chemical reaction that is both thermoneutral and for which the number of moles of gaseous reactants and products are equal.

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