Download Darwin without Malthus: The Struggle for Existence in by Daniel P. Todes PDF

By Daniel P. Todes

19th century Russian intellectuals perceived a Malthusian bias in Darwin's concept of evolution through average choice. They pointed out that bias with Darwin's idea of the fight for lifestyles and his emphasis upon the evolutionary position of overpopulation and intraspecific clash. during this e-book, Todes files a ancient Russian critique of Darwin's Malthusian blunders, explores its dating to such clinical paintings as Mechnikov's phagocytic concept, Korzhinskii's mutation idea and Kropotkin's thought of mutual reduction, and reveals its origins in Russia's political economic climate and within the very nature of its land and weather. this can be the 1st booklet in English to envision intimately the clinical paintings of 19th century Russian evolutionists, and the 1st in any language to discover the connection of Russian theories to the commercial, political, and ordinary situations within which they have been generated. It combines a vast scope (dealing with political figures and cultural pursuits) with a detailed research of medical paintings on a variety of themes.

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350) there is a passage which may be interpreted as an expression of a desire in Weber to look for an answer to this particular kind of unbrotherliness. Like Tolstoy, Weber had studied the Quaker ethic, and he found in this ethic (as displayed in William Penn’s letters to his wife) a genuinely humane interpretation of the value of marriage: its linkage with the thought of ethical responsibility for one another ‘up to the pianissimo of old age’13. The existence of this passage on the Quaker ethic and its concept of ethical responsibility for one another is particularly interesting, because it is not part of the original version of this text14 (Zwischenbetrachtung) published in 1916, but has been inserted by Weber as a new insight in the edition of 1920.

12   towards ever greater rationalization within the ‘iron-cage’ and towards a concomitant decrease of freedom. The edifice for the new bondage stands everywhere in readiness... All the economic weather signs point in the direction of diminishing freedom... Against the current of the material constellations are we individualists and party followers of democratic institutions. (1971, p. 63/64) Freedom was not a national problem for Weber, but a human problem relating to the human destiny.

1 of his Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie (1920) to his wife Marianne. 14 Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, Vol. 41 (1916).          19 The Two Alternatives Max Weber’s wife Marianne once wrote that he saw two possible ideals diverge to form two opposite poles of tremendous tension. For one thing, cultural values may be maintained even if they come into an irreconcilable conflict with all ethics. And conversely, an ethic that rejects all cultural values is possible without inner contradiction – like that of Tolstoy.

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