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By Tatu Vanhanen

This booklet examines the connection among symptoms of source distribution and democratization within the staff of one hundred seventy nations with info starting from the 1850s to the current day. Vanhanen constructs a compelling argument, concluding that the emergence of democracy is heavily associated with source distribution.

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Democratization : a comparative analysis of 170 countries

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The multiplicity of potential bases of power makes it impossible to identify and measure all different resources used as sanctions. I have limited my attention to only some types of power resources, to some most generally used power resources, which can be assumed to be relevant in all societies. This means that it is necessary to exclude many kinds of local and unique power resources. Although it is impossible to take into account all important power resources, or even to know them, I think that some aspects of resource distribution can be compared from country to country by using indicators whose meaning remains approximately the same across societies.

Edward N. Muller (1997) argues that income inequality has a negative impact on the stability of democracy over time, although it does not explain variation in the level of democracy at a single point of time. Therefore, income inequality should be regarded as an economic determinant of democratization that is as causally relevant as the level of economic development. He tested his hypothesis by empirical evidence and found that countries at the middle levels of economic development failed to promote democratization during the 1965–80 period, because the level of income inequality was much higher for middle-income countries than for low-income countries or for upper middle-income and high-income countries.

The variation of political systems from the rule of the few to the rule of the many follows from this constant relationship. In societies where relevant power resources are concentrated in the hands of the few, political power tends also to be concentrated in the hands of the few, and in societies where important power resources are widely distributed, political power tends also to become widely distributed. From this regularity, I have derived a Darwinian or evolutionary explanation for democratization and democracy.

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